As a business lawyer representing many closely held corporations, I often see shareholders elect board members without much thought, either because they are family members or employees of the business. The board of directors serves a very important management role for a corporation and the decision of who you put on the board should not be taken lightly. If an elected board member is no longer a good fit for your company, do not wait too long to replace him/her or you could be missing an opportunity to find a board member who will add value to your company.
Electing a Director
In most corporations, the bylaws provide that directors will be elected at each annual shareholders' meeting and will hold office until the next annual shareholder meeting and until their successors are elected and qualified, unless they are removed from the board before that time. Each year when it is time to renew your board, make sure you stop to consider whether the same directors should continue serving the company, or if it is time for some new blood. It is much easier to not re-elect a director, than it is to remove one during his/her term.
Removing a Director
Directors can be removed for cause, which means the director being removed did something wrong. The board can declare a director's seat to be vacant if that director is convicted of a felony or declared incompetent. A director can also be removed for cause by a court order, but the court will require at least 10% of the outstanding shares to petition for removal, and a showing of fraudulent or dishonest acts or gross abuse of authority by the director to be removed.
Shareholders may remove directors without cause if the removal is approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote for the election of directors. However, no individual director can be removed over an objection by one or more shareholders who, collectively, have enough votes to elect that director under cumulative voting.
Filling a Vacancy on the Board
Generally, the shareholders are supposed to elect the board of directors. However, depending on how the seat was vacated, either the board itself, or the shareholders, can fill a vacant board seat. If a director dies, is incapacitated, or resigns, the remaining directors can usually appoint a replacement director (unless the corporate documents say otherwise). If a director is removed, the vacancy must be filled by the shareholders unless the corporate documents authorize the board to fill such a vacancy. In the event that a majority of the directors have been appointed by the board, there is a safeguard to make sure the shareholders have the ultimate authority. Holders of 5% or more of the outstanding shares may call a special meeting of the shareholders and elect an entirely new board.
Whether or not your entire board is in place, in order to maintain your corporate liability shield, the corporation must follow the statutory rules regarding regular and special board meetings for the board to make decisions on behalf of the company. The rules for board meetings will be covered in another blog.
Contact Structure Law Group, LLP if your company would like assistance with corporate maintenance and compliance issues.
The information appearing in this article does not constitute legal advice or opinion. Such advice and opinion are provided by the firm only upon engagement with respect to specific factual situations. Specific Questions relating to this article should be addressed directly to the author.