According to an article published by Forbes in late 2014, 42 technology startups potentially looking at a 2015 IPO had raised venture financing of at least $1 billion. With the potential for the creation of significant wealth in a relatively short period of time, it is no wonder that many people are seeking to enter the tech marketplace with new ideas that have the potential to impact the way that millions of people conduct their daily lives.

Incorporation is one of the major steps involved in the growth of a tech startup and involves creating a distinct business entity that can own intellectual property, issue stock, raise capital, and is subject to rules of corporate governance. Incorporation can be a complicated process and involves filing paperwork with the Secretary of State’s office in the jurisdiction in which you wish to incorporate.

What are Bylaws?

A comprehensive evaluation of a target company is a critical component of any successful corporate acquisition. Often referred to as a “due diligence evaluation” or “due diligence review,” this process involves fully evaluating the company that is being acquired (the target) in terms of its assets, liabilities, litigation risks, intellectual property matters, as well as other issues that could have an impact on the feasibility and advisability of a particular acquisition.


The most effective way to ensure that a thorough due diligence investigation is conducted is to retain legal counsel that is familiar with representing buyers in mergers & acquisitions. Some of the most important issues to address in a due diligence review of a potential corporate acquisition are discussed below.

  • The target company’s financial matters – Issues such as financial statements, liabilities, margins, future projections, and potential capital expenditures should all be fully evaluated. This is often the first aspect of due diligence.

A corporate merger is a transaction in which two or more companies combine to form one entity. Generally speaking, most mergers occur by the mutual assent of the parties involved, while takeovers of other corporate entities are generally referred to as “acquisitions.” While it may seem unnecessary for the CEO or other chief executive of a corporation that is engaging in an agreed-upon consolidation to retain legal counsel, there are many reasons why it is prudent to do so. There are various legal issues that can have significant financial repercussions and may even derail a corporate merger altogether. Some of the ways in which an attorney can assist in a corporate merger are detailed below.

An attorney will structure the way that a transaction occurs

Mergers can occur in a variety of ways. For example, one company could merge with another company through stock transactions, by becoming a subsidiary that eventually merges with the acquiring company, or through a cash transaction, just to name a few. Each of these merger structures have various legal and tax implications that are often significant. For this reason, the advice of a skilled attorney is critical to structuring a merger transaction in the most beneficial way possible.

Very generally stated, the Board of Directors of a California corporation is responsible for the way in which the corporation is run. California law requires every corporation in the state to have a board of directors and, according to the text of the law, “all of the activities and affairs of a corporation shall be conducted and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the board.” While this may make is seem as if a company’s board of directors participates in the everyday management of the business, this is usually not the case, and corporate boards regularly delegate management of a business to individuals who may or may not be a member of the board.


How is a Board of Directors Formed?

When a company incorporates, it is required to file a document called “articles of incorporation” with the Secretary of State’s Office. This document establishes much of the basic identity about a corporation, including its name, how much stock it will issue, and the way in which the board of directors will be chosen.  California law requires that every board of directors has a chairperson or a president (or both), a secretary, and a treasurer or chief financial officer (or both), as well as any other named officers that may be required by a corporation’s bylaws.

Starting a business entity is a complicated issue that can be compounded by things such as founder’s stock and each founder’s respective contribution. Equity considerations can be extremely important in starting a business, especially when one founder contributes intellectual property (IP) rather than cash or labor.


What is Founder’s Stock?

Awarding a company founder stock is a relatively common practice in business formation, particularly in situations in which a startup is new and not yet generating income.  Doing so gives the contributing founder a measurable property interest in the newly formed entity. Typically, these stocks have a very low face value so that the founder receives a large amount of stock respective to his or her contribution.

Contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers have many tools at their disposal to protect their rights under construction contracts. While the mechanic’s lien is one of the most common ways a contractor or supplier can ensure full payment for their services, this type of legal tool can only be used for private construction projects against the private property owners. For this reason, many people who enter into government contracts may wonder what their options may be under the law to make sure they are properly compensated for their work. One of the most important tools under such circumstances is the payment bond.


What is a payment bond?

Payment bonds are common in many large-scale private construction projects and are further required in by California law for the following:

Enforceable contracts that accurately describe an agreement between the parties are essential to any business, regardless of industry. Contracts arise in many relationships, including with partners, businesses, suppliers, employees, and client or customers, and a company of even moderate size could easily have thousands of contracts with various parties. For this reason, implementing a system to manage contracts and ensure compliance can significantly improve efficiency, improve compliance, and reduce the risk of incurring legal liability that can arise from contract disputes. In addition, an effective contract management system can help automate certain tasks, significantly reducing the risk of human error resulting in a costly dispute. Below are 4 ways in which implementing a contract management system can help businesses in every aspect of the contract lifecycle management process.

  • Keep all contracts in a central repository – This benefit may seem simple, but consider the inefficiency involved in an employee searching through files upon files for a contract that may have been executed years ago. An effective contract management system can keep a copy of the contract itself while also summarizing key facts regarding the agreement in a way in which they are easily accessible to those searching.
  • Create a database of standard agreement and pre-approved substitutions – There is no need to reinvent the wheel every time your company enters into a new agreement. Creating a standardized contract for use in recurring situations as well as standard substitutions that are pre-approved for use can significantly improve efficiency in contract drafting and execution.

Many individuals who are citizens of foreign countries want to take advantage of the economic market in the United States. More specifically, California is a particularly popular state in which to start a business as a foreign national due to the close connections with the tech industry and the large and diverse population, among other reasons. If you are a foreigner considering conducting business in California, there is good news for you—neither residency nor citizenship is required to do so. Instead, you need only go through very similar steps as a U.S. citizen starting their own business with the state.

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The following are some important steps that you must take to start your California business:

  • Choose your business entity – This is an important decision with many implications and your options, including corporation, limited liability company, limited liability partnership, or limited partnership, should be carefully weighed. An experienced business attorney can assist you in choosing the correct entity for your type of business and your goals.

Too often, a contractor, subcontractor, laborer, or material supplier on a construction job does not receive the compensation they deserve for the work they have performed or supplies they provided for the project. Fortunately, California law provides a method by which contractors and others can pursue adequate payment. If the job is a private construction project, a primary tool for receiving payment is the mechanics lien. The following are some brief explanations for frequently asked questions amount mechanics liens in California.


What exactly is a mechanics lien?

A mechanics lien is a tool that creates a security interest in the property on which you worked. After a certain amount of time and if payment is not received from the property owner, you can then sue to foreclose on the lien to satisfy the lien amount.

Start-ups are popping up all around the country. As our society continues its shift towards a strong, tech-driven economy, more and more individuals are looking to find the “next big thing,” especially in the tech industry. Entrepreneurs are more and more motivated by success stories such as those of Uber, Facebook, and Airbnb.


But tech start-ups, while popular, are just one of the types of businesses that are appearing in the commercial landscape. 514,000 people became new business owners in 2012. As the US economy continues to improve, that number continues increasing.  Venture financing is a driving force behind the dynamic growth of small businesses such as start-ups. The National Venture Capital Association estimates that venture capital firms manage nearly $193 billion in total capital.

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