Articles Posted in Business Transactions

A start-up or entrepreneur looking to raise capital is willing to do almost anything to accept capital from an investor.  As a corporate and business law attorney, experience with more successful clients has led to some observations about what an entrepreneur might also want to look for or consider in an investor besides capital only.

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Consider the following observations when looking to attract investments.

Build Friends Not Just Investors

The Terms of Use for a website is critical to maintaining control of how users access and use the information on the website, and in limiting liability for unapproved uses. Regardless of whether users actually read the Terms of Use – many don’t because it typically contains complex legal jargon – the Terms of Use binds users to its terms by virtue of their use of the website. The Terms of Use constitutes a contract between the business and the customer. That legal jargon protects from liability from users and allows control over the information contained on the website.

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Businesses with an online presence — whether it be social media, e-commerce, mobile, static or interactive site — should always craft a carefully written Terms of Use. These terms are written to include a variety of different subjects relating to the business, the customer, information that is exchanged, information received and how that same information may be used.

Avoid Using Boilerplate or “One Size Fits All”

Starting a business is a difficult endeavor. While many people want the opportunity to start their own business, the time and commitment required to establish, develop, and grow a successful business are not for every potential entrepreneur. Instead of starting their own business, some individuals may look to another alternative: resale franchise.Fotolia_62005718_Subscription_Monthly_M-283x300

A resale franchise is an already-established franchise business that the current owner is looking to sell. The current franchise owner may be selling his or her franchise for reasons such as a divorce, a death in the family, or even for purpose of retirement. Whatever the reason, a resale franchise provides an opportunity to dive into a business without building it from the ground up.

Investing in a Resale Franchise: Pros

What is Crowdfunding?

Crowdfunding refers to entrepreneurs seeking relatively insignificant financial contributions from a large number of people, often via social media or other internet networks, to fund the start or growth of a business venture. According to one report, more than 600 crowdfunding sites exist and raised billions of dollars for various types of businesses in 2015 alone, worldwide.

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Types of Crowdfunding

If your company sells products or services online, the purchase process almost certainly includes a click through agreement, also known as “clickwrap,” “web-wrap,” or “click and accept” agreements. This refers to the button the consumer must click to indicate they accept all of the terms of the sale. If they choose not to accept, the sale will not go through. This agreement often includes intellectual property protections for the company, license restrictions, liability limitations, disclaimers involving warranties, among other standard contract terms.

The large majority of online consumers often click through without carefully reading the terms of the agreement. If a consumer later contests a term in the click through agreement, will a court uphold and enforce the terms of the initial agreement? This is important to know, as an unenforceable agreement can result in liability and losses. Consulting with an e-commerce attorney is the best way to guarantee a legally binding contract.

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Court Ruling on “Shrinkwrap Agreements”

One of the primary benefits of incorporating your business and complying with corporate governance laws is that a corporation provides personal liability protections for its owners from the debts and liabilities of the corporation. These protections exist because a corporation is viewed as an entity that exists separate from its owners and this creates a “corporate veil” which is intended to protect the shareholders from personal liability. However, there are some circumstances in which an injured party may hold shareholders personally responsible for the debts or actions of the corporation. This is commonly referred to as either “alter ego liability” or “piercing the corporate veil.”

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Generally speaking, when a party sues a corporation, that party seeks money from the corporation and not from shareholders as individuals. In some situations, however, owners may simply be using a corporation as an “alter ego” for themselves and they do not actually treat the corporation as a separate legal entity. In such cases, a party suing the corporation may pierce the corporate veil and try to hold the owners personally liable as well. While successful alter ego liability is rare, it does occur and all corporate owners should take steps to avoid it whenever possible.

Signs of “Alter Ego” Corporations

In the early stages of a merger and acquisition (M&A) transaction, owners may be willing to overlook certain differences in favor of focusing on the benefits of the deal. However, as the M&A transaction is completed, the rose-colored glasses may come off and sudden concerns may develop into serious legal disputes between owners. If these disputes are not handled correctly, it can result in long-term consequences, both financially and regarding the relations of the parties. The following are some information regarding common post-closing M&A disputes.

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Deferred Payment of Purchase Price

Many M&A agreements are structured such that part of the purchase price is paid at closing and the rest is paid at some point in future.  This is done with “earn-out” clauses and purchase price adjustment clauses, among others.  An earn-out clause is where the amount of future money paid depends on selling company’s performance after the acquisition, i.e. the money has to be earned after the closing before it is paid out.  These types of clauses are sometimes interpreted differently by buyers and sellers after the closing.  For example, if the selling company’s product is upgraded after the closing, the buyer and seller may view the revenues from those sales differently under an earn-out clause.  As another example, if the buyer and seller have different accounting practices that could certainly affect their interpretation of purchase price adjustment clauses.  Resolving these disputes can involve complex accounting and negotiations by both parties.

The purchase and sale of goods and services at a storefront is rarer these days. Information technologies make online transactions more efficient and convenient. However, those same transactions expose businesses to greater risk and liability when receiving and using customer information. Information technology companies must not only must safeguard their electronic transactions, but also secure sensitive information and proactively combat data breaches. Failure to do so can lead to a huge economic loss for the customers and the company.  Structure Law Group, LLP advises companies engaged in e-commerce on privacy and security issues, how to safeguard against the inadvertent data breaches and counsels them on the necessary steps to take if such an unfortunate event occurs.

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California law protects the individual’s right to the safety and integrity of his/her personal information. California’s Information Security Act defines personal information as any information that could identify or describe a person. Personal information includes a person’s name, address, social security number, license number, medical information, and the like. If your website collects such information, then you are required by law to take reasonable steps to prevent disclosure of such personal and private information. California law obligates businesses to implement security measures reasonably designed to protect the integrity of the such information. Every business entity, from a sole proprietorship to a multi-national corporation is subject to the Information Security Act.

There are many different types of businesses in which you can invest and earn profits, many of which that involve real estate. One important investment opportunity is a real estate investment trust, or REIT. This type of investment was created by Congress to give stockholders the opportunity to reap benefits from income-producing real property without having to go through the entire process of purchasing the property. There are different types of REITs and also many regulatory requirements for this potentially lucrative business endeavor.

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There are three main types of Real Estate Investment Trusts and the following is a brief description of each:

Businesses are moving away from the traditional storefront and are instead setting up shop online. Both the internet and apps connect individuals across the globe, providing businesses with greater and more innovative ways to reach new customers. For example, on Black Friday 2016, the busiest shopping day of the year for most retailers, online sales rose 21% year-over-year for a total of $3.34 billion. A full one-third of that figure was just from mobile sales.  On Cyber Monday 2016, the largest online shopping day, online sales rose over $3 billion with 26% of sales just from mobile devices.

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As a greater number of businesses devote their focus to the development of an online presence and using e-commerce to conduct their business, businesses must pay more attention to properly establishing and operating their online business.

Starting Your Business