April 2012 Archives

New Rules for Business Entities Change of Ownership Reporting for Real Property

April 27, 2012,

As a Silicon Valley business lawyer, I have many clients that are limited liability companies, partnerships, and corporations which own real property in California. It is common knowledge that when property changes hands in California, the property will be reassessed (unless an exception applies). However, people often forget that similar rules apply for business entities like corporations, partnerships and LLCs that own real property, when interests in the business entity change hands. As of January 1, 2012 there are some new rules and some higher penalties regarding reporting a change of ownership or control of real property in California. The required period for reporting has been extended from 45 to 90 days. The maximum penalty is now $5,000 for property eligible for the homeowners' exemption and $20,000 for property not eligible for the homeowners' exemption.

A change of ownership can happen in one of two ways:

1. Change in Control of a Legal Entity: If real property is owned by an entity and any person or entity gains control of that entity through direct or indirect ownership of more than 50% of the voting stock of a corporation or a majority interest in a partnership or LLC, the real property owned by that entity is considered to have undergone a change in ownership and must be reappraised.

2. Cumulative Transfers by Original Co-Owners: If real property is owned by an entity and over time voting stock or ownership interests representing more than 50% of the total interests are transferred by the original co-owners (in one or more transactions), the real property owned by that entity is considered to have undergone a change in ownership and must be reappraised.

There is no change of ownership when the direct or indirect proportional interests of the transferors and transferees do not change.

For legal entity transfers, the Form BOE-100-B Statement of Change in Control and Ownership of Legal Entities must be filed with the Board of Equalization in three circumstances. The personal or legal entity acquiring control of an entity must file when there is a change in control and the legal entity owned California real property on the date of the change. The entity must file when there is a change in control and it owns California real property. An entity must file upon request by the Board of Equalization. Source: Spidell's California Taxletter, Volume 34.2, February 1, 2012

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Fighting Over Profits - The Earnout, Part 2

April 13, 2012,

Although most of my career as a merger and acquisition and corporate lawyer has been spent in San Jose, issues involving earnouts do not have geographic boundaries. While many companies are acquired for their team or their technology, other companies are acquired because they make money for their stockholders. Earnouts provide an opportunity for a buyer to be assured that the company it has just bought will meet its objectives for the deal.

To construct an earnout that measures a company's success in making money, a tension arises between allowing the selling company to operate on its own, thereby mimicking its performance as it existed before it was sold, and integrating the seller's operations with the buyer. Buyers will want to integrate the seller as quickly as possible, but doing so will prevent the parties from determining how well the seller itself is performing.

The most important issue to determine is how profits will be calculated. As discussed in a previous blog, issues involving the use of GAAP become much more important as more revenue and expense items are measured. A detailed approach to calculating profits will help reduce disputes and provide guidance for the seller's managers to use in maximizing the earnout.

Earnouts constructed to measure profits typically require the seller to operate as a separate division, or even a separate entity. To take advantage of synergies, some operations are centralized with the buyer, such as finance and administration. The first area of dispute involves the manner in which administrative overhead, and the type of overhead, will be charged against the earnout. Outside of textbook ratios, there is no magic number and the result is usually reached through negotiation.

Often sales forces are consolidated, and the allocation of sales-related expenses and commissions can be very difficult, especially when the buyer's existing sales department is leveraged to produce sales for the seller. As with overhead, there are no easy answers and the approaches ultimately used are reached through negotiation.

Because of their complexity, earnout amounts are often disputed. Because of this, care must be taken to create an appropriate dispute resolution mechanism. Regardless of the dispute resolution process used for the acquisition agreement as a whole, arbitrating any earnout disputes has a number of advantages. First, the arbiter, or arbiters, can be specified as having expertise in accounting issues, or even in calculating earnouts. Relevant industry experience can be listed as a necessary attribute. Second, the arbitration can focus solely on determining the arbitration amount. Third, the parties can be required to go through nonbinding mediation. If successful, mediation can avoid the expense of an arbitration proceeding. Fourth, the proceedings can be kept confidential.

Earnouts, especially those based on profits, can be very complex and prone to dispute. Because of this, care must be taken by all parties to create a mechanism that will adequately measure performance while minimizing the opportunity for controversy.

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Is a B Corporation the Right Choice of Entity for Your New Company?

April 3, 2012,

I recently taught a program to California lawyers for the Santa Clara County Bar Association concerning B corporations, a subject I covered in a previous blog. As a Silicon Valley business attorney, with an increasing number of clients forming new companies, I want to discuss some attributes of these corporations that should be considered by anyone starting a new business.

The first consideration is whether becoming a B corporation will assist in a company's funding and operations. B corporations arise from a national movement to allow companies to consider factors other than just profits and shareholder value in making their decisions. Certain types of investors and employees are drawn to companies that share similar values. Because of the attractiveness of value-driven organizations to these constituencies, start-up companies should strongly consider whether becoming a B corporation can provide them with a unique story when soliciting investment, and an edge when recruiting employees.

The second consideration is whether the goods or services "fit" with the concept of a B corporation. Fortunately, a B corporation does not necessarily need to exist solely to pursue its social goal. Almost any business can be a B corporation if it adopts the kind of public purpose that is required under one of California's two B corporation statutes. For a "benefit corporation", the purpose needs to one which creates a material positive impact on society and the environment, taken as a whole. For the "flexible purpose corporation", the purpose needs to be one which could be pursued by a California nonprofit benefit corporation, or one which promotes or mitigates the effect of the corporation's activities on the corporation's stakeholder, the community or society, or the environment. The open ended nature of these purposes allows a wide variety of businesses to organize as a B corporation.

Because California created two different types of B corporations, you will need to consider which type of B corporation your new company should form. One way to approach this decision is to ask yourself how much the corporation should be forced to consider its public purpose. In the "benefit corporation", the board of directors MUST consider the impacts of any action on the company in the short term and long term, and its shareholders, employees, customer, community, and environment, and its ability to accomplish its public purpose. This will force the board to deliberate very carefully, and will require your counsel to prepare corporate documentation carefully to record the board's deliberations. By contrast, the "flexible purpose corporation" merely allows the board to consider its public purpose when making decisions, but does not require that furthering the purpose be a component of its decision.

In making your decision to conduct your business using a B corporation, you can avoid some common misconceptions. One common myth is that a B corporation needs to be certified. There is nothing in any of California's B corporation laws that require any type of third party certification. There is, in the "benefit corporation", a need to compare the efforts toward meeting public purpose to a third party standard, but this falls short of requiring actual certification. Another common question that often arises is whether B corporations are taxed differently. At this time, they are not. Of course, a B corporation does not need to be a nonprofit corporation for tax purposes.

In a future blog, I will cover one of the most critical considerations you face when adopting a B corporation - the disclosure of your company's activities.

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