Articles Posted in Tax Planning

Business formation is imperative in order to properly operate a business. The selection of a business entity is important because it helps provide important benefits regarding ownership rights, taxes, and, depending on the entity selected, limited liability. Business law is governed on a state by state basis, and every business has the flexibility of incorporating in any state, not just the state of its principal place of business.llc

Delaware is the most popular state for incorporation. Delaware has a rich history of favorable business laws that have helped give it a very pro-business reputation. Because of this pro-business reputation, it may be very attractive to incorporate in Delaware. However, it is important that businesses be aware of both the pros and cons of incorporating outside of their state and in Delaware.

Pros of Incorporating in Delaware

When a person is considering starting a business, one of the first questions that often arises is which state to incorporate in. Many people simply choose the state in which they live and plan to do business, as it often seems to be the easiest and simply makes sense. In many cases, the decision to incorporate in your state of residence is perfectly fine and has no real long-term impact. It is important to note, however, that the choice of jurisdiction in which a business is incorporated has the potential to have a significant effect on a company’s tax liability and the way in which the business is run on a day-to-day basis. For this reason, anyone who is considering forming a business should discuss his or her options with an experienced Silicon Valley startup attorney familiar with corporate law throughout the United States.Fotolia_85658726_Subscription_Yearly_M-300x300

Why does it matter?

Corporations and Limited Liability Companies, two of the most popular business formations that can shield owners from personal liability, are created by state law. As a result, there are 50 different sets of rules that apply to business formation and corporate governance. Furthermore, each state has a separate state taxation scheme that can result in significant differences in tax liability. Some of the issues that will depend on where you choose to incorporate include the following:

More and more startups are issuing stock and other forms of equity as a form of compensation for work, especially in the early stages of a venture. This arrangement allows a business to recruit talent that they otherwise wouldn’t be able to afford and, if the company is successful, can result in a significant windfall for people who worked to get a company off the ground without a guarantee of compensation.toad-river-brown_3737_990x742

Generally speaking, when you are transferred equity in a company it is necessary to pay taxes on the fair market value of that equity as you would with any other type of income. In many cases, however, a grant of equity is subject to a vesting agreement, which means that the equity is not actually owned by the grantee until a certain period of time passes. As a result, at the time of the grant, nothing is actually owned, so there is no tax liability associated with the initial grant. When the stock vests, however, that income becomes realized, meaning that there may be significant tax liability, particularly if the company has done well.

83(b) elections can minimize tax liability associated with grants of equity

A merger or acquisition can be a great way to grow your business. Joining forces or purchasing another company increases your market share and potential profits. There’s no real way to know if the venture will pay off. However, the proper due diligence can provide reassurance that the move you’re making is a good one. Due diligence is a multi-step process, so in this post we’re going to focus on just one part: liabilities.

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Understanding Liabilities

Any merger or acquisition comes with a degree of risk. Liabilities are the debts and obligations incurred through the course of doing business. Loans are considered a liability as are accounts payable and accrued expenses. It’s important to take a look at the total number and dollar value of all liabilities. Also, look at the company’s payment history. Are bills paid on time? Is there a record of default? These are red flags that should give you pause. Remember, once you’ve assumed liabilities the responsibility is yours.

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Converting a limited liability company to a corporation is a relatively easy process. Before I take you through the steps, let’s take a quick look at the differences between the two types of business structures.

3 Differences Between Limited Liability Companies and Corporations

1. LLCs are formed by one or more people (members). These members file Articles of Organization and craft an Operating Agreement. Corporations file similar paperwork. However, unlike LLCs, corporations have shareholders and governing bodies like a Board of Directors.

As a business and real estate attorney in California, I often assist clients in real estate transactions using Internal Revenue Code Section 1031 to defer the tax on the sale of their real estate by transferring the tax attributes of that property into a new, like-kind, property. IRC Section 1031 is a federal statute, but we can also take advantage of the tax deferral on the exchange of like-kind property for California income taxes.

However, historically, when the exchange was made into property in another state, it was difficult for California to track these exchanges and make sure the state eventually got its share of deferred taxes. For example, if a real estate investor were to sell a shopping center in Sunnyvale, California and buy a shopping center in Incline Village, Nevada, and the real estate investor satisfied all of the IRC 1031 requirements, both federal and California taxes could be deferred until the later taxable sale of the Nevada property (or any other property into which it had been exchanged). The problem was that part of those deferred taxes were California income taxes, and California had no system in place to make sure the FTB was aware of the eventual tax recognition event. A new rule now provides the Franchise Tax Board with the information it needs to keep track of these transactions and the deferred taxes so that it can collect them when the time is right.

Starting January 1, 2014, if you exchange California property for out-of-state property you will be required to file an information return with the FTB for the year of the exchange and every subsequent year that the gain is deferred. Regardless of your state of residency at the time of the exchange, if you are a California resident when the out-of-state property is later sold, all of the gain is taxable in California. But don’t think that moving to Nevada can get you out of theses deferred taxes. If you were a California resident at the time of the exchange but you are a nonresident when it is sold, the previously untaxed California gain is still taxable to California. Also, if you exchange out-of-state property for California property you must reduce the California basis on the property by the amount deferred, even if you were a nonresident at the time of the exchange. [Source: Spidell’s California Taxletter, Vol. 35.7, July 1, 2013]. The new filing requirements will help the FTB track these exchanges.