Articles Tagged with bankruptcy

Fotolia_79495533_Subscription_Monthly_M-300x200Any business that deals with customers – meaning all businesses – has customers that are habitually slow to pay for the goods or services that they purchase. Unlike retail transactions such as those that occur at a grocery store, many business-to-business transactions are not immediately completed. Customers don’t necessarily have to pay before the goods or services leave the building. Payment terms might be 30 days net or 60 days net, but the customer has time to pay for what they have purchased. But what can you do when those 30 or 60 days pass by without a payment? And what can you do if that time continues to drag on and months go by without a payment from your customer?

Don’t Delay with Delinquent Customers

There are many reasons – and excuses – for delayed payments or nonpayment by customers. If you invoice by mail, it is possible that the invoice was not delivered, or that it was lost internally at the customer’s business. Depending upon the size of the business, it is possible that no one at the customer’s business knows that a bill has not been paid. Reasons and excuses aside, your business cannot afford to operate without being paid.

What happens to an LLC member’s membership interest in the LLC if the member files bankruptcy? How does the member’s (the debtor) bankruptcy filing impact the LLC and its other members? Does the bankruptcy trustee (or the debtor in possession in a chapter 11) step into the debtor’s shoes contrary to an express provision in the LLC’s operating agreement restricting transfers by members and prohibiting a transferee or assignee of a member from becoming an LLC member without the other members’ consent? Is the bankruptcy trustee bound by the terms of the LLC’s operating agreement, or does the trustee acquire the debtor’s membership interest free and clear of any transfer or other restrictions imposed by the LLC’s operating agreement? To answer these questions, the Bankruptcy Court in the debtor’s bankruptcy must first determine whether the LLC’s operating agreement is an “executory” contract under Section 365 of the Bankruptcy Code.

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What is an Executory Contract?


The Bankruptcy Code does not define “executory contract.” However, many circuits, including the Ninth, have adopted the “Countryman Test,” which provides that a contract is executory if ‘the obligations of both parties are so far unperformed that the failure of either party to complete performance would constitute a material breach and thus excuse the performance of the other.’ Determining whether a contract, including an operating agreement, is executory therefore requires a case-specific examination of the contract in question.