Articles Tagged with san jose business attorney

There are many California requirements for an investor to be a holder in due course.  A holder of an instrument is entitled to enforce the instrument.  However, a “holder in due course” has greater rights under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and the California Commercial Code (COM) than a holder who is not a holder in due course.  Specifically, a holder in due course takes an instrument free from many of the defenses to repayment that might have been asserted against the original obligee or against another assignee or holder not in due course.  An experienced San Jose business law firm can help business owners and investors understand their rights and requirements in order to be a holder in due course.

There are specific requirements that must be met for an investor to qualify as a holder in due course, including that:

  • The investor takes the instrument for value;

Section 544 of the Bankruptcy Code, commonly referred to as the “strong arm” clause, gives the bankruptcy trustee the rights of a secured creditor.  This allows the trustee to avoid for the benefit of the debtor’s creditors transfers or obligations that could have been avoided by an unsecured creditor under nonbankruptcy law, provided such creditor exists.  Generally, this allows the trustee to avoid unperfected liens and fraudulent transfers.

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Section 544 of the Bankruptcy Code sets out the strong arm clause in full.  Section 544 provides in relevant part that “[t]he trustee shall have, as of the commencement of the case, and without regard to any knowledge of the trustee or of any creditor, the rights and powers of, or may avoid any transfer of property of the debtor or any obligation incurred by the debtor” that could have been avoided by certain judicial lien holders or bona fide purchasers. The Bankruptcy Code can be confusing and intimidating to some.  An experienced San Jose bankruptcy lawyer can help creditors understand their rights, options and risks not only with the “strong arm” clause, but the entire Bankruptcy Code.

What Claims Can Be Avoided?

Government contracts can be lucrative for many companies, large or small. Often, one company wants to bid on a government contract but needs assistance from another company to fully perform the contracted work. In such cases, the two companies would combine their resources to share the bid and the contract, if awarded.  When this situation arises, it is critical to ensure that the companies have an agreement, a “teaming agreement”, stating how the work set forth in the government contract is to be divided to protect the interests of each business.

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Many teaming agreements involve a large corporation acting as the primary contractor and one or more smaller businesses acting as subcontractors. Smaller businesses naturally want to protect their interests against larger corporate entities with more resources. Preparing bids can be costly and time consuming and can take focus away from other day to day operations of the business.

Unfortunately, the problem is that many teaming agreements have been deemed unenforceable by California state courts. Because a teaming agreement is signed before a contract is awarded and whether it takes effect is dependent upon winning the contract, many courts have stated that teaming agreements are “an agreement to agree” in the future instead of a binding contract. This means that a subcontractor could take the time to prepare a bid and enter into an agreement with a primary contractor, and once the government contract is won by the primary contractor, it could decide to use a different subcontractor, leaving little legal recourse for the subcontractor.

A commercial landlord is confronted with a number of issues when a tenant files bankruptcy. When a tenant files bankruptcy with an unexpired lease, the debtor tenant is given the option to “assume” or “reject” the lease. If the debtor elects to assume the lease, it agrees to be bound by all terms of the lease and it must cure all defaults and provide the landlord with “adequate assurance of future performance” under the lease. If the debtor rejects the lease, the rejection constitutes a breach of the lease, giving the landlord claims for damages.

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Assumption or Rejection. The first question that a commercial landlord will want to know is whether the debtor will assume or reject the unexpired lease.

If the debtor assumes the lease it means that the debtor intends to remain at the property as a tenant (or possible that it plans to assign the lease to a third party). In order for a debtor to assume a lease, the debtor must either not be in default under the lease or it must cure all pre- and post-petition defaults; it must give the landlord “adequate assurance of future performance under the lease,” and it must obtain bankruptcy court approval to assume the lease.

Previously on this blog, we discussed two important matters relating to the formation of the Terms of Use on your business’s website: avoiding using boilerplate language in favor of terms tailored to your specific business and having a privacy policy regarding the collection of customer information. The following are two more important things to consider during the process of drafting and posting your website’s Terms of Use.

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Have Clear Sale Conditions

Many companies use their website to conduct online sales. No matter what your product is or the size of your operation, failing to have clear conditions of sales on your Terms of Use can result in disputes and even legal claims. The terms of a sale should be in clear language that the customer can read and agree to prior to making a purchase. Some terms to address in this part of your Terms of Use include the following:

Every time a contract is signed, the potential exists that one party fails to perform the obligations specified under the contract. In such cases, the aggrieved party may elect to file a lawsuit to try to seek performance under the contract or, more typically, for losses incurred as a result of the other party’s non-performance. However, in some cases, there may be a defense to the enforcement of the contract.  One such defense is undue influence.

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Undue influence is the unfair or improper persuasion of one person by another or excessive persuasion that causes another person to act or refrain from acting by overcoming that person’s free will resulting in inequity. A party’s apparent consent to a contract (or transaction) is not free or real when it is obtained through undue influence. In other words, a contract obtained though undue influence is voidable.  Consent is deemed to have been obtained through undue influence when the purported consent would have been refused if the acts constituting undue influence had not existed.

In California, there are four circumstances, prescribed by the civil code, in which undue influence occurs:

As a business owner, you should take every possible precaution to ensure that the information of your clients, customers, and employees are safe. However, as many corporate owners will tell you, even the most well-prepared companies – large or small – can be the victims of data breaches. One precaution to protect your company from these data security breaches is to seek counsel from an experienced California e-commerce attorney from the start.  The following are only a few steps you may want to consider taking if a data breach happens to your business:

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Take Immediate Action

The minute you learn of any type of breach, you should start working to repair the leak.  You can do a lot of damage control by immediately addressing security flaws and securing the rest of your data. You should identify which servers have been affected and the nature of the data on those servers.

Many partnerships begin among friends or individuals with similar interests who have a business idea together. However, having a good business idea and being able to cooperate to actually run a successful partnership are two very different things. In many cases, you may realize that your partner is not pulling his or her own weight or is even bringing the business down through his or her actions, or lack thereof. In such situations, you may naturally wonder what you have to do to remove that partner from the partnership and continue running the company without them.

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Unfortunately, simply removing a partner and continuing with business as usual is often much harder than it seems. Your options should be closely evaluated depending on your specific circumstances.  Having the assistance from a San Jose partnership attorney will help your business establish a binding partnership agreement that will allow the business to run smoothly and efficiently even if a situation arises between partners.

Do You have a Partnership Agreement?

Entrepreneurs are faced with numerous decisions when forming a business. First, they need to contemplate the nature of the corporate entity they wish to operate (i.e., corporation, limited liability company, partnership, etc.). This decision hinges on many factors including the type of business, the desired ownership structure, tax considerations and potential financing opportunities. If the entrepreneur determines that forming a corporation is most advantageous for his or her particular situation, then he or she must next decide whether the corporation will be taxed as an S-corporation or a C-corporation.

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The “S” and “C” designations refer to different subchapters of the federal tax code. They each have their own governing requirements and qualifications, some of which are laid out below.

S-Corporations

Types of Crowdfunding for Investors

Like other types of investments, all crowdfunding campaigns are not created equal and one campaign can vary significantly from the next. There are two main types of crowdfunding investments on which we will focus here: reward-based crowdfunding and equity crowdfunding. However, it is important to realize that these are not the only types of crowdfunding available for investors in today’s market.  In addition, there are many guidelines, requirements and regulations differing for each type of crowdfunding.

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Reward-based Crowdfunding